Title: Zika Virus Disease in Colombia — Preliminary Report
Author: Oscar Pacheco, M.D.,, Mauricio Beltrán, M.S.,, Christina A. Nelson, M.D.,, Diana Valencia, M.S.,, Natalia Tolosa, M.D.,, Sherry L. Farr, Ph.D.,, Ana V. Padilla, M.D.,, Van T. Tong, M.P.H.,, Esther L. Cuevas, M.S.,, Andrés Espinosa-Bode, M.D.,, Lissethe Pardo, B.S.,, Angélica Rico, B.S.,, Jennita Reefhuis, Ph.D.,, Maritza González, M.D.,, Marcela Mercado, M.S.,, Pablo Chaparro, M.D.,, Mancel Martínez Duran, M.D.,, Carol Y. Rao, Sc.D.,, María M. Muoz, M.D.,, Ann M. Powers, Ph.D.,, Claudia Cuéllar, M.D.,, Rita Helfand, M.D.,, Claudia Huguett, M.S.,, Denise J. Jamieson, M.D.,, Margaret A. Honein, Ph.D.,, and Martha L. Ospina Martínez, M.D.
Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients.
Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD.
By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system.
Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing.