Among the genes retained from this whole-genome duplication are homologues of genes that regulate flowering transition and flower development.
In addition, some water lilies have short life cycles and enormous numbers of seeds， which increase their potential as a model plant to represent the ANA-grade of angiosperms and to study early evolutionary events within the angiosperms.短的生命周期和大量的种子使其成为研究ANA级被子植物及被子植物演化的潜在模式植物。
N. colorata Peter：染色体2n = 28 and 基因组 409 Mb，具有蓝色花瓣，annotated 31,580 protein-coding genes and predicted repetitive elements with a collective length of 160.4 Mb, accounting for 39.2% of the genome
N. colorata基因组提供了一个机会，以解决Amborellales，Nymphaeales与所有其他现存被子植物之间的关系（图1a,b,c），three gymnosperm species (Ginkgo biloba, Picea abies and Pinus taeda) as an outgroup in turn。Among the LCN gene trees inferred from nucleotide sequences using G. biloba as an outgroup, 62% (294 out of 475 trees) place Amborella as the sister lineage to all other extant angiosperms with bootstrap support greater than 80% (type II, Fig. 1c). Using P. abies or P. taeda as the outgroup, Amborella is placed as the sister lineage to the remaining angiosperms in 57% and 54% of the LCN gene trees, respectively.
图1d是115种植物的系统发生树和时间尺度（44个基因组和71个转录组）。根据不同的标准，有5个的LCN基因集，包括1,167、834、683、602和445个基因。对这五个数据集的分析都得出了类似的树状结构，Amborella和Nymphaeales是所有现存被子植物的连续姊妹谱系。using a stringent set of 101 LCN genes and with age calibrations based on 21 fossils，inferred the crown age of angiosperms at 234–263 million years ago (Ma) (Fig. 1d). The split between monocots and eudicots was estimated at 171–203 Ma and that between Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae at 147–185 Ma.
睡莲系起源于被子植物早期分化的一个分支，在被子植物辐射之前。因此，这个组提供了一个独特的窗口，了解被子植物的早期进化，特别是花卉。We identified 70 MADS-box genes, including homologues of the genes for the ABCE model of floral organ identities: AP1 (and also FUL) and AGL6 (A function for sepals and petals), AP3 and PI (B function for petals and stamen), AG (C function for stamen and carpel), and SEP1 (E function for interacting with ABC function proteins).（Extended Data Fig. 3）。
N. colorata ABCE同系物的表达谱在很大程度上与它们在花器官图案中假定的作用相一致(图3a)。其中。AGL6同源基因主要在花萼和花瓣中高表达，建议其为A功能基因。FUL主要在心皮中表达。C功能的AGa和AGb在雄蕊和心皮中高表达，AGb也在花萼和花瓣中表达，表明他们可能在睡莲WGD后经历了亚功能化从而可能导致了其在花组织发育中的新功能。双子叶植物和睡莲中的ABCE模型（图3b）。
关于这一段描述不太理解”This wider expression pattern, in combination with broader expression of at least some ABCE genes in some eudicots representing an early-diverging lineage11, some monocots12 and magnoliids13, suggest an ancient ABCE model for flower development, with subsequent canalization of gene expression and function regulated by the more specialized ABCE genes during the evolution of mesangiosperms, especially core eudicots8 . This could also account for the limited differentiation between sepals and petals in Nymphaeales species, and is consistent with a single type of perianth organ proposed in an ancestral angiosperm flower“