When does heparin-induced thrombocytopenia begin following the administration of heparin?
Typically, the platelet count fall begins 5-10 days after starting heparin, although a rapid platelet count fall can occur in a patient who has antibodies from recent heparin use (Clin Toxicol 2014 Jul;52:579).
On ABG, hypoxemia is considered atypical finding in acute pulmonary embolism. What portion of acute PE patients have normal arterial oxygen saturation? What about the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient - if it is normal is acute PE unlikely?
Post-thrombotic syndrome occurs in 9.7% of DVT patients after anticoagulation treatment. Patients experience pain, heaviness, swelling, itching, skin changes, and ulceration of the affected extremity. Why does PTS occur after anticoagulation?
Colchicine has been shown to be effective in relieving pain in patients with acute pericarditis and in preventing recurrences. For how long should it be prescribed?
If there are no contraindications, 4 - 6 weeks of colchicine should be considered in all patients with acute pericarditis, especially in patients whoh ave not benefitted from NSAID therapy after 1 week.
Acute pulmonary embolism is commonly associated with tachycardia, but large studies have shown that sinus bradycardia may be present in > 2% of patients with PE, and 3.5% have 1st-degree ** block at presentation. How does PE result in bradycardia?
Other than heart failure, conditions associated with BNP level elevations include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease, and ARDS. What condition can falsely lower BNP levels? What condition may falsely elevate levels?
Typically, hospitalization is unnecessaryfor acute pericarditis unless poor prognostic indicators are identified. Name those indicators that mandate hospitalization.
Myocarditis, cancer, conditions that confer a predisposition to tamponade (pericardial effusion > 2 cm, trauma, anticoagulation), and indicators of possible purulent pericarditis (fever,immunosuppression).